Osteoarthritis results from the deterioration of cartilage in joints. Cartilage is the tough material that covers the ends of bones, providing a smooth gliding surface. In the knee joint, where the thigh bone (femur) meets the shinbone (tibia), there are three places where bones make contact. One of them is on the inside (nearest the opposite knee, referred to as medial) and one is on the outside (farthest from the opposite knee, referred to as lateral). The kneecap (patella) is the third point of contact.
Juvenile arthritis can present in much the same way as adult-onset arthritis, with joint swelling, stiffness and soreness that's more pronounced in the morning or when children are active. In an active child, these symptoms can be hard to tease apart from the normal aches and pains of playing sports, which is why a thorough diagnosis with a complete health history is important. That's often followed by imaging scans, such as ultrasound or MRI, to give the doctor a closer look at the child's joints.
Corticosteroids are powerful anti-inflammatory medications. They suppress inflammation and pain, and they also suppress the immune system. If the immune system is weakened in any way, it can put you at increased risk for infections. A possible complication of any joint replacement surgery is infection. While this occurs only rarely, the risk is increased if the immune system is impaired. For this reason, people should wait to have joint replacement surgery after having a steroid injection until the immune system has had time to recover.
If not enough uric acid is excreted (a function of the kidneys) it can build up in the bloodstream and cause hyperuricemia. Some people, but not all, who have hyperuricemia will develop gout. In people with gout, uric acid leaves the bloodstream and travels to joints. The deposits of uric acid can intermittently form needle-shaped crystals, which set off an inflammatory response by the body. The result is a red, hot and swollen joint of a gout attack.
Golf is an appealing sport for millions of Americans, including about 17 million people over age 50. Getting older doesnt diminish the desire to play, but it can present some new challenges.
"They can determine what parts of the body are problem areas before you play golf, and they will create an individualized conditioning program," says Dr. Burg, who is a certified TPI golf expert. Cleveland Clinic has several certified golf experts, and you can also find one in your area on the TPI website (mytpi.com). Golf assessments are not usually covered by health insurance unless you have a golf-related injury.
There also is a wealth of data in medical records and the research literature about the characteristics of individual patients and their experiences with different treatments. "When I'm in an exam room with a patient, it is difficult to reconcile the hundreds of data points in the records that influence how a patient will perceive their outcome and to render a truly informed decision for that patient," says Dr. Mroz. He believes the solution to this problem is artificial intelligence (AI).
There are two biceps tendons at the shoulder, called the long head and short head. "The long head of the tendon is deep in the shoulder, and it passes out of the shoulder joint into a little groove at the top of the humerus bone," explains Dr. Schickendantz. This lengthy pathway makes the long head of the biceps tendon more prone to injury than the short head.
Joint replacement surgery is often recommended when osteoarthritis seriously limits the ability to function and can no longer be effectively managed with nonsurgical methods, such as exercise, physical therapy, pain medications and injections.
You should talk to your doctor to get an accurate diagnosis. If you know you have osteoporosis, be sure you are getting sufficient calcium (1,200 mg a day for women over age 50 and men over age 70 and 1,000 mg a day for men ages 51 to 70) and vitamin D (600 international units [IU] per day up to age 70 and 800 IU per day after age 70). A medication for low bone mass may be needed. Preventing osteoporosis from getting worse will help prevent further compression fractures. If you don't know whether you have osteoporosis and you haven't had a bone density test, see your doctor about getting one.
If the doctor suspects there might be some other cause of joint problems besides osteoarthritis, a rheumatologist will be consulted. If symptoms of osteoarthritis don't improve or get worse, your doctor may send you to an orthopaedist or a rheumatologist for more intense medical management or an orthopaedic surgeon for surgery.
"The goal with orthotics is to make sure your foot is moving in the best way it can so your knee isn't getting more force than it should," says Lorring. There are a wide variety of shoe inserts and heel wedges that you can buy in a drug store or online. You can also get them custom made or save some money and get semi-custom ones. Like with shoes, you need to get inserts and wedges that are specific to your needs.